MPU-6050 Module GY-521 Module

### Lesson Plan: Understanding and Utilizing the MPU-6050 Module GY-521 in Electronic Circuits

**Introduction**

In this lesson, we will explore the operational principles and practical applications of the MPU-6050 Module GY-521. The MPU-6050 is a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer. It is widely used in robotics, motion detection, and stabilization systems. By the end of this lesson, you will have a comprehensive understanding of how the MPU-6050 works and how to incorporate it into your electronic projects using the I2C communication protocol.

**Learning Objectives**

Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to:
1. Identify the physical characteristics of the MPU-6050 Module GY-521.
2. Explain the function of the accelerometer and gyroscope in motion tracking.
3. Implement the MPU-6050 to read motion data and use it in various applications.

**Materials Needed**

– MPU-6050 Module GY-521
– Breadboard
– Jumper wires
– Raspberry Pi Pico WH
– Multimeter (optional)

**Background Information**

The MPU-6050 is an integrated 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope. It communicates with microcontrollers via the I2C interface and can measure acceleration, rotational velocity, and temperature.

**MPU-6050 Characteristics**

The MPU-6050 has several key pins:
– **VCC**: Power supply (typically 3.3V to 5V).
– **GND**: Ground.
– **SDA**: I2C data line.
– **SCL**: I2C clock line.
– **INT**: Interrupt pin (optional, not used in this lesson).

**Principles of Operation**

The MPU-6050 operates by detecting linear acceleration and rotational velocity:
– **Accelerometer**: Measures linear acceleration in three axes (X, Y, Z).
– **Gyroscope**: Measures rotational velocity in three axes (X, Y, Z).
– **I2C Communication**: The MPU-6050 uses the I2C protocol to communicate with the microcontroller, sending motion data for processing.

**Circuit Diagram and Setup**

**Step-by-Step Instructions**

1. **Identify the MPU-6050 Pins**:
– Locate the VCC, GND, SDA, and SCL pins on the MPU-6050 module.

2. **Set Up the Breadboard Circuit**:
– Place the MPU-6050 module on the breadboard.
– Connect the VCC pin of the MPU-6050 to the 3.3V or 5V pin on the Raspberry Pi Pico WH (3.3V is preferred for consistent operation).
– Connect the GND pin of the MPU-6050 to the ground (GND) pin on the Raspberry Pi Pico WH.
– Connect the SDA pin of the MPU-6050 to the GPIO pin (e.g., GP0) on the Raspberry Pi Pico WH.
– Connect the SCL pin of the MPU-6050 to the GPIO pin (e.g., GP1) on the Raspberry Pi Pico WH.

3. **Install Required Libraries**:
– Ensure you have the necessary I2C and MPU-6050 libraries installed in your MicroPython environment. You can use the `mpu6050.py` library, which is available online.

4. **Write the Control Code**:
– Open your MicroPython IDE and write the following code to interface with the MPU-6050 and read motion data:

“`python
from machine import Pin, I2C
from time import sleep

# MPU-6050 I2C address
MPU6050_ADDR = 0x68

# MPU-6050 registers
PWR_MGMT_1 = 0x6B
ACCEL_XOUT_H = 0x3B
ACCEL_YOUT_H = 0x3D
ACCEL_ZOUT_H = 0x3F
GYRO_XOUT_H = 0x43
GYRO_YOUT_H = 0x45
GYRO_ZOUT_H = 0x47

# Initialize I2C interface
i2c = I2C(0, sda=Pin(0), scl=Pin(1), freq=400000)

# Wake up the MPU-6050
i2c.writeto_mem(MPU6050_ADDR, PWR_MGMT_1, b’\x00′)

def read_word(reg):
high = i2c.readfrom_mem(MPU6050_ADDR, reg, 1)[0]
low = i2c.readfrom_mem(MPU6050_ADDR, reg + 1, 1)[0]
value = (high << 8) + low if value >= 0x8000:
value = -((65535 – value) + 1)
return value

def read_accel():
accel_x = read_word(ACCEL_XOUT_H)
accel_y = read_word(ACCEL_YOUT_H)
accel_z = read_word(ACCEL_ZOUT_H)
return (accel_x, accel_y, accel_z)

def read_gyro():
gyro_x = read_word(GYRO_XOUT_H)
gyro_y = read_word(GYRO_YOUT_H)
gyro_z = read_word(GYRO_ZOUT_H)
return (gyro_x, gyro_y, gyro_z)

while True:
accel = read_accel()
gyro = read_gyro()
print(“Accel: X=%d, Y=%d, Z=%d” % accel)
print(“Gyro: X=%d, Y=%d, Z=%d” % gyro)
sleep(1)
“`

5. **Upload and Test the Code**:
– Connect your Raspberry Pi Pico WH to your computer using a Micro USB cable.
– Upload the code to the Raspberry Pi Pico WH.
– Observe the accelerometer and gyroscope readings in the IDE’s console. Move and rotate the MPU-6050 module to see how the values change.

6. **Optional: Measure Signal Characteristics**:
– Use a multimeter to measure the voltage across the VCC and GND pins to ensure proper power supply.
– Use an oscilloscope to observe the I2C communication signals on the SDA and SCL lines.

**Applications and Extensions**

1. **Motion Tracking**:
– Use the MPU-6050 to create motion tracking systems for applications such as fitness tracking, gesture recognition, and virtual reality.
– Experiment with different algorithms to process and analyze the motion data.

2. **Stabilization Systems**:
– Implement the MPU-6050 in stabilization systems for drones, robots, or cameras to maintain balance and smooth movements.
– Combine with other sensors, such as magnetometers, for improved accuracy.

3. **Interactive Projects**:
– Use the MPU-6050 in interactive projects where motion or orientation control is required, such as controlling a game or navigating a user interface.
– Integrate with other input/output devices to create complex interactive systems.

**Summary and Review**

This lesson has provided a detailed exploration of the MPU-6050 Module GY-521, covering its identification, operational principles, and practical applications in electronic circuits. By understanding and utilizing the MPU-6050, you can create sophisticated motion tracking and stabilization systems for a variety of applications, enhancing the functionality and interactivity of your electronic projects.

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